Elemental Analysis of Some Fast Food Additives using Different Techniques

Gehan Yousif, Ahmed Soileman, Shaban Kandil, Mogahed Al-Abyad


Some local food additives such as flavouring agents have not an analysis data related to metallic impurities and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) along with the leak in the specifications of metallic impurities and NORMs in the flavouring agents globally. Assessments of impurities (some heavy metals) and NORMs is an essential part of the risk assessment. Therefore nine flavouring agents from the Egyptian local market, namely, liver, ketchup, kebab, red chili powder, yeast extract powder, curry, meat, smoked meat, and cheese have been investigated for presence of NORMs and some heavy metals. The Average Annual Committed Effective Doses (AACED) due to ingestion of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in the flavouring agents were calculated using the corresponding values for each of the flavouring agents. The nine flavouring agents have been also investigated for presence of some harmful elements, As, Bi, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Sn, and V. The elemental analysis has been achieved by both inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). The contents of As, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Sc, Sn and V in these food additive samples were determined by ICP-OES, while for Br, Cr, Co, Hg, Sb and Sc were analyzed by NAA. The results reveal that ICP-OES and NAA are complimentary analytical techniques and their combination leads to reliable results of elemental concentrations. The contents of heavy metals in these additives are discussed with that reported by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), 2002 and 2004.


Flavouring agents; heavy metals; NORMs; ICP-OES; NAA; AACED

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